History of formation, development and activity of museum institution in the Moscow Kreml numbers almost three centuries, during which there were periods of high highs, the rapid development of the museum and scientific work, the frames literally heroic struggle for the preservation of national relics, but there were failures, forgetfulness and again the revival.
The history of the museum in the Kreml, in the heart of the country has always been inextricably linked with the history of the Russian state. The museum is a treasure house, a museum that holds relics of the state and enormous material values, have always attracted the attention of the authorities. This circumstance is sometimes beneficial, sometimes tragically, but always actively influenced the life of the museum.
Despite the interest in the history of the museum, which has been particularly evident in the last decade, there remain a lot of white spots, found no evidence, no documents. First of all, it concerns questions of departmental subordination of the Museum, develop its structure and staff, which largely determined the scope of the Museum's work and reflected the awareness of the importance of the Kremlin Treasury.
Understanding the experience and tradition of the path traveled by the museum, can be extremely important to define its true place in the culture of Russia.
The museums of Moscow Kreml:
The ensemble is the bell tower of Ivan the Great
Assembly the bell tower "Ivan the Great",which is located on the border between Sobornaya and Ivanovskaya squares, is the compositional center of the Kreml. It was created over three centuries – since 1505, in 1815, and consists of three different objects: the pillar of the Ivan the Great bell tower, the assumption belfry and Filaretov's Annex.
The bell tower was erected in 1505 – 1508, Italian architect – Bon Fryazin. A century later, she received another tier of bells, and its height reached 81 meters. This is similar to the inscription under the dome containing the date – the year 1600 and the names of Tsar Boris Godunov and his son Fedor. In 1532 – 1552, near the bell tower under the project of Italian architect Petroca built a Small Church at the end of the seventeenth century was transformed into a belfry named Uspenskaya. In 1624, Bazhen Ogurtsov put it close to the belfry with tent top – Filaretovo extension.
In 1812, retreating from Moscow, Napoleon's army blew up the bell tower ensemble, however, the pillar of Ivan the Great survived. The belfry and the Filaret Annex were completely destroyed, but in 1814 – 1815, they were restored in the previous volumes. Today the bell tower and the bell tower houses 24 bells of XVI – XVII centuries.
On the ground floor of the assumption belfry is the exhibition hall the museums of Moscow Kreml, where exhibited the works of art from the Kreml collection, and from other Russian and foreign museums, as a unique monument of ancient Russian architecture – the Ivan the Great bell tower opened a museum,which is dedicated to the history of architectural ensemble of Moscow Kreml.
The museum is unusual! Its exhibition is based on multimedia technology, with which the walls and vaults of the bell tower are projected ancient views and plans of the Kreml, the image of unique monuments of architecture, unfulfilled projects of perestroika. In computer reconstructions of virtual presents are embedded in authentic fragments of white – stone decoration of the ancient buildings of the Kreml. Unusual and final part of the exhibition. The visitors leave the gallery and watch the panorama of the Kremlin from the height of bird flight. The tour is accompanied with individual audio guides.
The Armory Museum – the Treasury – is a part of the Grand Kreml Palace. It is housed in a building constructed in 1851 by architect Konstantin Ton. The basis of the museum collection was stored for centuries in the Royal Treasury and the Patriarch sacristy precious items made in the Kreml workshops and received as a gift from foreign embassies. The name of the museum is one of the ancient Kreml Treasury vaults.
The Armoury chamber preserves an ancient state regalia, ceremonial clothing and Royal coronation dress, vestments of the hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church, the largest collection of gold and silver products of work of Russian craftsmen, West European artistic silver, monuments, arms skill, Assembly crews ceremonial horse harness.
The museum is presented approximately four thousand items of applied art of Russia, Europe and the East IV – beginning of XX century. Their highest artistic level and particular historical and cultural value brought to the Armoury chamber of Moscow Kreml is world famous.
The Cathedral of the assumption
Simply, the monumental silhouette gold-domed white-stone assumption Cathedral dominates its surrounding palaces and temples on the Cathedral square of the Kreml – the ancient citadel of Moscow.
The Cathedral was built in 1479 by order of Grand Duke of Moscow Ivan III specially invited Italian architect Aristotle Fioravanti. The consecration of the Moscow Cathedral of the Dormition of the virgin Mary – the chief Holy day, celebrated in the old style August 15, has an ancient tradition, due to the special veneration of our lady.
For six centuries the Church was the state and religious center of Russia: here supplied the great princes were crowned, crowned emperors. In the assumption Cathedral was erected in a dignity of bishops, metropolitans and patriarchs, announced by the state acts, were prayers before military campaigns and in honor of the victories. In the XIV – XVII centuries, the assumption Cathedral was the burial place of the heads of the Russian Church – metropolitans and patriarchs. Precious cancers here in the ashes of the Moscow Wonderworkers, Peter, Jonah, Philip and Hermogenes II.
The Archangel Cathedral, built in 1505 – 1508, Italian architect – Aleviz New, is the most original monument in the whole Cathedral square of the Moscow Kreml. With the construction of the Archangel Cathedral over the restructuring of the Grand – Ducal residence, conceived and executed by Ivan III, Grand Prince, Tsar "of all Russia" (1462 – 1505). During the period of its reign, completed the unification of the Russian lands finally released in 1480 from the Mongol – Tatar yoke, has increased the international prestige of the growing Moscow state. Reflection this was a grandiose building in the Kreml. In the ideological program that you were invested in the transformation of the Moscow Kreml by the customer, an important role was played by the Archangel's Cathedral, the princely Church, which became the burial place of the Moscow Grand-Ducal house.
The temple is dedicated to the Archangel Michael, the heavenly patron of the princes in their martial exploits. Great princes have come here to pray before you go to war, in the hope to beg for spiritual strength on the deed. Here was an oath of loyalty to the Grand Duke by his younger brothers. Later in the temple to worship the graves of the ancestors was sent to the king at the head of a solemn procession after the ceremony of coronation.
Extant Arkhangelsk Cathedral in 2008 was five hundred years old. However, its early history dates back to even earlier times.
The Cathedral of the Annunciation
The Annunciation Cathedral is one of the ancient monuments of the Moscow Kreml. Built in the XV century chapel, the great Russian princes and tsars has undergone numerous changes throughout its 500 years of existence. The authors of the guide talk about the history, the architecture, the iconostasis, the frescoes of the Cathedral, and in it the exhibition of icons of XIV – XVIth century Guidebook is richly illustrated, contains a plan of the Cathedral and the layout of the icons in the iconostasis.
The publication is intended both for specialists and for anyone interested in ancient Russian art.
The Patriarch's Palace
According to records, in the first half of the XIVth century Metropolitan Peter received from the Grand Prince of Moscow Ivan Kalita for his yard in the Kreml place North of the assumption Cathedral.
In 1450, Metropolitan Jonah was erected at this place a stone Church of the deposition and the first stone chamber in the Kreml. During the Moscow fire of 1473, the court was completely destroyed, and Metropolitan Geronty had to rebuild it. In the years 1484-1485 by Pskov masters erected a new Church of the deposition that continues today. All subsequent metropolitans, and from the end of XVI century the patriarchs settled in their possessions in the Kreml, erected wooden and stone structures.
During the Polish-Lithuanian intervention and 1626, the Patriarchal courtyard burned. Patriarch Filaret restored the Cross and the Dining room chamber, constructed wooden cells and Church.
In 1643 began a new phase of construction works associated with the name of the Patriarch Joseph. Under one roof were built the cross, the Golden, the Cell and the Treasury, and a number of outbuildings. The work was supervised by Antip Konstantinov, one of the builders of the Terem Palace.
The next stage in the life of the Patriarchal court in the Kreml is associated with the name of Patriarch Nikon. In the autumn of 1652 began the analysis of old houses, the Church of Solovki and buildings at the former court of Boris Godunov received a Nikon as a gift from Tsar Alexis Mikhailovich. By the end of 1655 was built the new houses and the Church, but even three years, until leaving Nikon in the Department in July 1658, was the decoration. The first floor of the Palace was used for household needs and placement of orders, were on the first floor state rooms and chapel, the third,there were the Patriarch's personal quarters.
Subsequent patriarchs in varying degrees, also completed, decorated and reconstructed the Palace.
In 1721, after the abolition of the Patriarchate and the institution of the Holy Synod in the building chambers located its Moscow office. This resulted in significant changes in the layout and decoration of the chambers and their appearance.
In 1918, the Patriarch's Palace as a rare monument of architecture of the XVII century were donated to the museum. Began a long process of scientific restoration. In 1967, on the second floor of the Patriarch's chambers was opened the first permanent exhibition.
SInce 1980 till 1985, were held the regular large-scale research and restoration work, the result of which became modern exposition of the museum.
Church of The Deposition
A special place in the architectural ensemble of the Cathedral square is the Church of the Regulations of the robe of the blessed virgin Mary,which is located between the assumption Cathedral and the Palace of facets. Founded in the XV century the Church was named in honor of the feast of the placing of the robe of the blessed virgin Mary. For several centuries it was a part of the complex of the Metropolitan court and served as the family chapel of metropolitans and patriarchs of Russian.
The iconostasis and wall paintings of the cozy small Church constitute a single ensemble. The Church's gallery houses the permanent exhibition of Russian wooden sculpture. The monuments of this art form remained slightly, and each of them is of great interest and value.
The temple, preserved to our time, was founded by Metropolitan Gerontius in 1484. Regarding the date of construction of the temple the predecessor common opinion among historians is not. Until the mid XVстолетия here stood the mansion of Russian metropolitans, who from the XIV century, lived in Moscow. In 1448 on the throne of the Russian Metropolitan was elected Bishop Jonah of Ryazan, later canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church as one of its outstanding figures. The appointment of a Metropolitan Council of Russian bishops, and not the Patriarch of Constantinople, meant a break with centuries of tradition and was an important step on the way to becoming independent of the Russian Church.
Metropolitan Jonah became an active ally of Moscow Grand Prince Vasily II the Dark, which is reflected in the strengthening of Metropolitan chair. Soon in the Kreml, to the Metropolitan yard, there was a stone chamber with a house Church, the erection of which is associated with 1451 year – with the event that went down in Russian history under the name of "first of tatarina". In the summer of 1451 Tatar troops of the Golden Horde under the command of Prince Mazovia suddenly approached Moscow, burned the town and besieged the Kreml. All night the defenders of the city prepared for defence, fortified and inspired by the unceasing prayers and services held by Metropolitan Jonah. In the morning, the 2-nd of July, the day of the feast of the placing of the robe of the blessed virgin in Vlaherna, Tatars, leaving the loot the booty, lifted the siege and retreated. In memory of the deliverance of Moscow from the Tatar threat was laid house temple of the metropolitans, which was named Raspolozhennogo.
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Ticket office: 9.30 – 16.30
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